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most famous works of Sigmund Freud, calculated for a wide readership. However you may not store or transmit the PDF files (except the a beginning. opinions of two observers who are agreed upon the facts and their basic reading of on Hysteria and thus follow the path which I myself have trodden. FREUD. Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud) May 6, –. September 23, . and in a form which shall neither discourage beginners, nor appear too.
For example, anxiety originating from traumatic experiences in a person's past is hidden from consciousness, and may cause problems during adulthood in the form of neuroses.
Thus, when we explain our behavior to ourselves or others conscious mental activity , we rarely give a true account of our motivation. This is not because we are deliberately lying. While human beings are great deceivers of others; they are even more adept at self-deception. Freud's life work was dominated by his attempts to find ways of penetrating this often subtle and elaborate camouflage that obscures the hidden structure and processes of personality.
His lexicon has become embedded within the vocabulary of Western society. Words he introduced through his theories are now used by everyday people, such as anal personality , libido, denial, repression, cathartic, Freudian slip, and neurotic.
The case of Anna O real name Bertha Pappenheim marked a turning point in the career of a young Viennese neuropathologist by the name of Sigmund Freud. It even went on to influence the future direction of psychology as a whole. Anna O. Her doctor and Freud's teacher Josef Breuer succeeded in treating Anna by helping her to recall forgotten memories of traumatic events.
During discussions with her, it became apparent that she had developed a fear of drinking when a dog she hated drank from her glass. Her other symptoms originated when caring for her sick father. She would not express her anxiety for her his illness but did express it later, during psychoanalysis.
As soon as she had the opportunity to make these unconscious thoughts conscious her paralysis disappeared. Breuer discussed the case with his friend Freud. Out of these discussions came the germ of an idea that Freud was to pursue for the rest of his life.
In Studies in Hysteria Freud proposed that physical symptoms are often the surface manifestations of deeply repressed conflicts. However, Freud was not just advancing an explanation of a particular illness.
Implicitly he was proposing a revolutionary new theory of the human psyche itself. Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to describe the three levels of the mind.
On the surface is consciousness, which consists of those thoughts that are the focus of our attention now, and this is seen as the tip of the iceberg.
The preconscious consists of all which can be retrieved from memory. The third and most significant region is the unconscious.
Here lie the processes that are the real cause of most behavior. Like an iceberg, the most important part of the mind is the part you cannot see. For example, Freud found that some events and desires were often too frightening or painful for his patients to acknowledge, and believed such information was locked away in the unconscious mind.
This can happen through the process of repression. Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. These are not physical areas within the brain, but rather hypothetical conceptualizations of important mental functions. The id, ego, and superego have most commonly been conceptualized as three essential parts of the human personality.
Freud assumed the id operated at an unconscious level according to the pleasure principle gratification from satisfying basic instincts. The id comprises two kinds of biological instincts or drives which Freud called Eros and Thanatos.
Eros, or life instinct, helps the individual to survive; it directs life-sustaining activities such as respiration, eating, and sex Freud, The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido. In contrast, Thanatos or death instinct, is viewed as a set of destructive forces present in all human beings Freud, When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence. Freud believed that Eros is stronger than Thanatos, thus enabling people to survive rather than self-destruct.
The ego develops from the id during infancy.
The ego's goal is to satisfy the demands of the id in a safe a socially acceptable way. In contrast to the id, the ego follows the reality principle as it operates in both the conscious and unconscious mind. The superego develops during early childhood when the child identifies with the same sex parent and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed. The superego operates on the morality principle and motivates us to behave in a socially responsible and acceptable manner.
Outline of PsychoAnalysis _ Sigmund Freud.pdf
The basic dilemma of all human existence is that each element of the psychic apparatus makes demands upon us that are incompatible with the other two. Inner conflict is inevitable. For example, the superego can make a person feel guilty if rules are not followed.
When there is a conflict between the goals of the id and superego, the ego must act as a referee and mediate this conflict. The ego can deploy various defense mechanisms Freud, , to prevent it from becoming overwhelmed by anxiety. In many cases, the result was some form of neurotic illness. Freud sought to understand the nature and variety of these illnesses by retracing the sexual history of his patients.
This was not primarily an investigation of sexual experiences as such. Freud believed that children are born with a libido — a sexual pleasure urge. To be psychologically healthy, we must successfully complete each stage. This particular theory shows how adult personality is determined by childhood experiences. Freud considered dreams to be the royal road to the unconscious as it is in dreams that the ego's defenses are lowered so that some of the repressed material comes through to awareness, albeit in distorted form.
Dreams perform important functions for the unconscious mind and serve as valuable clues to how the unconscious mind operates. On 24 July , Freud had his own dream that was to form the basis of his theory. He had been worried about a patient, Irma, who was not doing as well in treatment as he had hoped.
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Freud, in fact, blamed himself for this, and was feeling guilty. Freud dreamed that he met Irma at a party and examined her. He then saw a chemical formula for a drug that another doctor had given Irma flash before his eyes and realized that her condition was caused by a dirty syringe used by the other doctor. Freud's guilt was thus relieved. Freud interpreted this dream as wish-fulfillment.
He had wished that Irma's poor condition was not his fault and the dream had fulfilled this wish by informing him that another doctor was at fault. Based on this dream, Freud went on to propose that a major function of dreams was the fulfillment of wishes. The two func- tions often fail to coincide completely.
The chief interest is naturally focused upon the first of these assertions, the most unexpected of all. It has been found that in early childhood there are signs of bodily activity to which only ancient prejudice could deny the name of sexual, and which are connected with mental phenomena that we come across later in adult love, such as fixation to a particular object, jealousy, and so on.
It is further found that these phenomena which emerge in early childhood form part of a regular process of development, that they undergo a steady increase and reach a climax toward the end of the fifth year, after which there follows a lull. During this lull, progress is at a standstill and much is unlearned and undone.
After the end of this period of latency, as it is called, sexual life is resumed with puberty, or, as we might say, it has a second efflorescence.
Here we come upon the fact that the onset of sexual life is diphasic, that it occurs in two waves; this is unknown except in man and evidently has an important bearing upon his genesis. Our understanding of the etiology of the neuroses and the technique of analytic therapy are derived from these views; and the tracing of the process of development in this early period has also provided evidence for yet other con- clusions.
This may also have been related to some other trans- formations in the sexual life of man as compared with that of animals, such as the suppression of the periodicity of the libido and the exploitation of the part played by menstruation in the relation between the sexes. The Development of the Sexual Function 11 The first organ to make Its appearance as an erotogenic zone and to make libidinal demands upon the mind is, from the time of birth onward, the mouth.
To begin with, all mental activity is centered upon the task of providing satisfaction for the needs of that zone. In the first instance, of course, the latter serves the purposes of self-preservation by means of nourishment; but physi- ology should not be confused with psychology.
The baby's ob- stinate persistence in sucking gives evidence at an early stage of a need for satisfaction which, although it originates from and is stimulated by the taking of nourishment, nevertheless seeks to obtain pleasure independently of nourishment and for that reason may and should be described as "sexual.
Their extent increases greatly during the second phase, which we describe as the sadistic-anal phase, because satisfaction is then sought in aggression and in the excretory function.
We justify our inclusion of aggressive impulses in the libido by supposing that sadism is an instinctual fusion of purely libidinal and purely destructive impulses, a fusion which thenceforward persists with- out interruption. It is to be noted that what comes in question at this stage is not the genitals of both sexes but only those of the male the phallus. The female genitals long remain unknown: in the child's attempt at understanding sexual processes, he pays homage to the venerable cloacal theory a theory which has a 3 With the phallic phase and in the course of it the sexuality of early childhood reaches its height and approaches its decline.
Freud for beginners
Satisfaction of what remains in the ego of the death instinct seems not to produce feelings of pleasure, although masochism represents a fusion which is precisely analogous to sadism.
But it is most probably a question of excitations in the clitoris, that is, in an organ analogous to the penis, so that this fact would not preclude us from describing the phase as phallic.
Thenceforward boys and girls have different histories. To begin with, both place their intellectual activity at the service of sexual research; both start off from the presumption of the universal presence of the penis. But now the paths of the sexes divide. The boy enters the CEdipus phase; he begins to manipulate his penis, and simultaneously has phantasies of carrying out some sort of activity with it in relation to his mother; but at last, owing to the combined effect of a threat of castration and the spectacle of women's lack of a penis, he experiences the greatest trauma of his life, and this introduces the period of latency with all its attendant consequences.The Future of an Illusion, trans.
Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious. Defense Mechanisms Click here for more information on defense mechanisms.
English Nelagodnost u kulturi, trans. First published in Jahrbuch der Psychoanalyse, Vol. It is all that a person has about him. Helen M.
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